Life expectancy rises slightly

Life expectancy at birth has increased on an average by 0.64 years annually over the last five years, reaching 70.4 years in 2013 from 67.2 years in 2009, according to a report on Sample Vital Statistics System (SVRS). The life expectancy of females has reached 71.2 years while for males the figure is 68.8 years. Secretary of the Statistics and Information Division, Kaniz Fatema, released the report at the auditorium of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) at Agargaon in the city yesterday. BBS director general Mohammad Abdul Wazed chaired the programme. Additional secretaries M Shafiul Islam, MA Mannan Howlader, and Md Baitul Amin Bhuiyan also addressed the programme. Project director AMK Ashraful Haque made a PowerPoint presentation on the report.   The SVRS report observed that the gain is somewhat pronounced among males compared to females.
The crude death rate is reported to be 5.3 per 1,000 population, with a rate of 5.6 in rural areas and 4.6 in urban areas. This rate has declined from 5.8 in 2009 to 5.3 in 2013. A similar decline was noted in the infant mortality rate: 39 per 1,000 live births in 2009 to 32 in 2013. In line with this decline, the neo-natal mortality rate has also fallen from 28 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2009 to 21 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2013, without recording any male-female differentials.
Post-neonatal mortality rate remained static over the last five years centred on the neighbourhood of 11 deaths per 1,000 live births. Child mortality has been estimated to be 2.2 deaths per 1,000 children, which is lower by only 0.1 deaths than the figures of previous years and 0.4 than the one reported in 2009. Under-five mortality has also demonstrated a similar decline: from 50 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2009 to 41 deaths in 2013. In all cases, males have been found to experience higher mortality risk than females.
This is true for both urban and rural areas, and rural children run a higher risk of mortality than urban children. The maternal mortality ratio has shown a consistent fall over the last five years, from 2.59 maternal deaths per 1,000 live births in 2009 to 1.97 in 2013.
The crude birth rate, the simplest measure of fertility, has been estimated to be 19 per population of 1,000. The rural CBR, as expected, is higher than the urban CBR, 19.3 against 18.2.
The general fertility rate worked out to 71 per 1,000 women, with 73 in rural areas and 63 in urban areas. The fertility rate remains in the neighbourhood of 2.1, which is marginally lower than the rate (2.12) in the previous year. A comparison of all these alternative measures of fertility tends to demonstrate that fertility in Bangladesh has shown a modest decline over the last five years.
The age at marriage has remained nearly static over the last five years. For example, while the mean age
at marriage, as recorded in 2009, was 23.8 years for males and 18.5 for females, these mean ages were estimated to be 24.3 years and 18.4 years in 2013 respectively. A close examination of the mean age at marriage by urban-rural residence conveys the same message.
The migratory behaviour of the population in the SVRS area demonstrates a balancing scenario. The overall in-migration rate was estimated to be 40.4 per population of 1,000 as against an out-migration rate of 39.9, resulting in a net migration of only 0.5 per population of 1,000. Urban in-migration rate (70.4) compared to rural migration (31.7) was significantly higher. This is also true for the out-migration rate, 68.1 versus 31.7.
The rate of contraceptive prevalence has shown a moderate increase over the last five years, from 56.4 in 2009 to 62.4 in 2013, an increase of around 11 per cent in 54 years. The urban women are greater in proportion (64.1 per cent) than their rural counterparts (61.8 per cent) in the use of contraceptives. Of the total users, modern method users constitute 60 per cent while the remaining 2.4 per cent adopt traditional methods.